Best Motorcycle Handlebar Speakers 2022 – Reviews and Buyer’s Guide

Best Motorcycle Speakers reviewsMotorcycles have less space compared to other vehicles and can’t be accessorized too much, but technology knows no limits.

A motorcycle speaker is yet another proof of this.

While you enjoy your ride on a pleasant day with natural beauty before your eyes, you would definitely miss listening to a soundtrack to accentuate that experience.

A motorcycle speaker makes your driving sheer fun. Thanks to these speakers, you can enjoy tunes wherever the highways take you.

Imagine being on a ride on a highway with scenic beauty and nice weather around and you are hearing your favorite music on a speaker which produces quality, noiseless and crisp sound.

Product NameSpeaker TypeSize 
BOSS MC420B (Our pick)Tweeter3 Inches
Pyle PLMCA20 (Runner-up)Outdoor4 Inches
BOSS MRWT40 (Upgrade pick)Waketower4 Inches
LEXIN LX-Q3Stereo3
JBL CruiseSoundbar2.5 Inches
BOSS MC600BTweeter4 Inches
GoHawkSoundbar3 Inches
MTX MUDHSB-BOutdoor8 Inches
Polk DB522Woofer5.25 Inches
Package 40PS692Woofer6 Inches

The level of joy you will achieve with this memorable ride will be simply unmatched.

The article to follow is our effort to provide you with valuable information about the important features to look for in a motorcycle speaker along with reviews on the 10 best speakers.

Top 10 Motorcycle Speakers Review 2022

Now that you know what features to look for in a motorcycle speaker, you can go through our top 10 picks to choose the one that fits your criteria.

1. BOSS MC420B Speaker – All-Terrain Weatherproof Speakers

BOSS MC420BThe BOSS MC420B speakers are great for increasing the fun of your ride.

With Bluetooth connectivity, these speakers can establish a wireless connection with your smartphone or MP3 device so that you can enjoy listening to your favorite songs.

Another way of using the speakers is to connect them to the 3.5 mm aux input with your playback device.

Furthermore, your concerns regarding bad weather and the safety of these speakers are meaningless as these speakers come with weatherproof components, which can resist the elements to a great extent.

The overall listening experience is made worthwhile by the 3-inch chrome full-range speakers.

They are lined with adjustable brackets whose size can range from 0.75” to 1.25” to easily fit on handlebars.

The volume control offers flexibility as it can be installed at any spot where you feel the most comfortable.

You are provided with 3 years of warranty with these speakers. Make sure these speakers are installed by an expert for them to deliver their best performance.

One compromising feature of this speaker is the short length of the cable. Due to this, your listening experience can be affected, but that can be easily resolved by replacing the cables with longer ones.

Pros
  • Bluetooth enabled
  • 3.5 mm port
  • Affordable
  • Adjustable clamps
Cons
  • Limited Bluetooth range
  • Not waterproof
Conclusion

Overall, at such an affordable price, these speakers are an amazing product to buy. While they can be improved with a lengthier cord, as long as the sound quality is not compromised, they are a great purchase.

2. Pyle PLMCA20 – Style with Great Sound Quality

Pyle PLMCA20Adorn your bike with these trendy bullet-shaped speakers that measure 3 inches. With a chrome finish, these speakers exude style and elegance.

They support a number of devices with the 3.5 mm jack, which you can connect to your Android or iOS device or MP3 player.

Therefore, there is no need to purchase any SD card or USB separately to use with it.

Volume control is completely within your reach via a wired remote control, which can be easily mounted close to the handlebars.

This way, you can adjust the volume of the music on the go without looking away from the road.

There is a long list of vehicles this speaker is compatible with including snowmobiles, ATVs, scooters, boats, and wave runners.

The road and wind noises are reduced by the mini amplifier it comes installed with, which works on 12 volts.

This speaker will not leave you disappointed in harsh weather as it comes equipped with a weatherproof system.

It is composed of marine-grade construction, enhancing its capability to resist water, though it’s not waterproof.

The installation process of this speaker is simple and quick because it comes with all the necessary accessories and mounting brackets as well as a comprehensive installation guideline.

Keep in mind, this speaker is resistant to water but not waterproof, so heavy rainfall can harm it.

Pros
  • Bluetooth connectivity
  • Weatherproof
  • Stylish looks
  • Adjustable wired remote control for easy control
  • Simple to install
  • Mini amplifier to enhance its performance
Cons
  • Speaker wires are very short in length
  • Not waterproof
Conclusion

Easy to install with a good sound quality, the Pyle PLMCA20 is a great purchase for those who do not go on a ride in rainy weather.

3. BOSS Audio MRWT40 – Resilient and Durable

BOSS Audio MRWT40This is a high-grade speaker as the cone is made from polyurethane, which has proven durability and resilience.

The speakers will, thus, have a long life and are specially crafted for marine and off-road use.

Furthermore, its inner components are protected with a sealed coating so that no moisture can harm them.

Adding to the strength of these speakers are the heat-resistant voice coils.

This quality allows them to resist high temperatures, allowing them to be used for long durations.

The butyl rubber surround enhances the durability of the product to a great extent.

It allows it to endure extreme damage as butyl is chemically inert and does not let air get inside.

It is preferred in making the surround because it can handle the abuse that the outdoors come with.

To give a well-balanced listening experience, the speakers come with dome-shaped tweeters rather than semi-dome tweeters, which spread sound over a wider area.

Being directional, the high-frequency sound waves can give you a better “sweet spot” when spread widely.

In the case of very high frequencies, these speakers can be strained. You can also expect a distorted result if the volume is kept very high.

Pros
  • UV protection
  • Offers water resistance
  • Highly durable
  • Bigger “sweet spot” for the listener
Cons
  • Not waterproof
  • Distorts at high volumes

Conclusion

With a crisp and clear sound quality accompanied by commendable durability, these speakers will satisfy you with their performance.

4. Lexin S3 – For the Pitch Lovers

Lexin S3This speaker can play music at very high volumes, made possible by a 50-watt amplifier.

It is designed to fight against all weather. Adding to the adornment of the bike is its stylish bullet shape and chrome-plated metal housing.

It comes in two colors, black, and chrome.

It facilitates wireless streaming with its built-in Bluetooth connectivity.

It sets up an immediate link with the device with minimum or no interruptions.

This super-fast connectivity is one of its highlighted features. Some other mentionable features that come with the speaker include A2DP stereo, USB and a FM radio tuner.

The best part about this speaker is its easy installation process.

It can be automatically recognized and configured by the system as soon as it is plugged in since it has a plug-and-play stereo system.

The fully integrated wiring loom makes the installation process hassle-free. A control knob is placed on the left speaker, which lets you switch the speaker on or off.

Since these speakers are embodied with waterproof components, one can ride and listen to music without covering them in heavy rain.

While these speakers will impress you with their functionality, they cannot be perfect in all aspects.

At speeds higher than 40 mph, the sound quality and loudness drop a little. However, in this case, a windshield can help you solve the issue.

Pros
  • Waterproof
  • Easy controls
  • Plug and play
  • Delivers loud music
  • Stylish design
Cons
  • Its good performance is hampered after a speed of 40 mph
Conclusion

Although its performance falters at speeds over 40 mph, this speaker should be on your list if you are looking for a high-end product.

5. JBL Cruise – Affordable Bluetooth Handlebar Speaker Kit

JBL CruiseThe JBL Cruise Bluetooth Handlebar Speaker Kit features a pair of 2.5-inch handlebar speakers.

A number of different bikes can be mounted with this speaker kit because it has a mirror integration mount with a universal fit.

The operating buttons are designed in a large enough size so that they can be pressed even when gloves are worn.

You can also customize the speakers according to your personal taste and style as they are made of metal and plastic housing, which can be easily coated with different colors.

Furthermore, you can easily charge your smartphones on the go with the USB charging port delivering a power output of 5V and 1A.

The Bluetooth connectivity lets you directly play your favorite tunes from your handset or MP3 player.

The speakers are compact with a dimension of 13 x 5 x 6 inches and weigh 4.2 pounds, so they are lightweight too.

They are rated IPX5 waterproof, which makes them ideal for the outdoors, even when there is a forecast for rain.

They can be conveniently installed with only two wires that need to be inserted directly into the battery.

However, the sound delivery is not compatible with highway noise, especially at high speeds. This issue can be resolved by having a full windshield on the bike.

Pros
  • Looks stylish
  • Affordable
  • Bluetooth compatible
  • IPX5 waterproof
  • Customizable
Cons
  • Not loud enough for a Harley
Conclusion

At low speeds, this speaker gives you a pleasant listening experience with no distortions. However, this is not the product for you if you are mostly driving above 55 mph. Otherwise, it is a great purchase that you will not regret.

6. BOSS Audio MC600B – Great Audio at an Affordable Price

BOSS Audio MC600BThese are one of the best speakers in the market but are still quite affordable.

Equipped with Bluetooth connectivity, the speaker provides you the opportunity to play and control apps like Spotify and Pandora with remote control.

The multi-function remote allows you to control the track and volume and play/pause music.

The speakers exhibit superb compatibility with any motorcycle, scooter or ATV.

The class A/B high-performance amplifier incorporated in the speaker is compact and sturdy. With these 800-watt amplifiers, you will hear clear sound, even if you blast tunes on the highway.

The speakers are easy to mount as all the required hardware is available in the box. The mounts come with rubber strips to avoid scratching the handlebar.

You also get adjustable brackets, which help the speaker fit on any handlebar with a diameter of 0.75” to 1.25”.

The mounting system is durable enough to hold the speaker in place even if the bike experiences jerks and bumps.

The 3.5 mm aux input is compatible with MP3 players and smartphones, so you can hear your playlist on the go.

The best part is that all these useful features come at a highly affordable price.

However, the speakers have certain downsides as well.

The amplifiers get heated if placed under the seat, so you won’t be able to use the speaker for a long time. Furthermore, you can only mount two speakers at a time.

Pros
  • It is very easy to install without any technical expertise
  • The speakers can function while facing any direction
  • All components are sealed and waterproof
  • It gives great audio quality from all compatible devices
Cons
  • Only two speakers can be mounted at a time
Conclusion

Overall, the speaker is great with clear audio and Bluetooth connectivity. Its affordability adds to its popularity among customers.

7. GoldenHawk  – Value for Money

GoldenHawksThese speakers offer a super-clear sound quality with an advanced waterproof design and many other high-end features.

Their waterproofing capability is so fantastic that you can enjoy your favorite music in a heavy downpour without any fear of damage.

This silver stereo unit is manufactured from high-quality aluminum which makes it durable and gives it a pretty stylish design for most motorcycles.

The sound quality is also amazing without any noticeable distortion.

Mounting these speakers is super-easy with the mounting clamps that support the 7/8” to 1-1/4” handlebar.

In its Gen 2 update, the manufacturers have included a set of 2 optional stainless steel extensions, which allow you to customize the installation.

The system has a 3.5 mm audio jack, so you can connect it to your smartphone or MP3 player.

The speakers can also connect seamlessly to any of your Bluetooth-enabled devices for a fine audio streaming experience.

They are compatible with iPhone 4+, iPod, and most Android devices.

There are other features as well to enhance your speaker’s value. The radio, for instance, provides you with updates on the weather.

You can also tune the radio from your smartphone via Bluetooth. A digital clock is also incorporated.

While the volume is pretty loud, on the interstate with high speeds, it can be a little hard to hear.

Pros
  • The speakers are easy to mount
  • The stainless steel mounting brackets give a great look
  • The sound quality is loud and gives decent bass for the price
Cons
  • The speakers may be a little noisy at highway speeds
Conclusion

Overall, this moderately priced speaker offers decent quality. It’s stylish, durable, and reliable.

8. MTX MUDHSB-B – Powerful Audio with 6 Speakers

MTX MUDHSBIf you have a motorcycle with handlebars and want to listen to great music while on the go, the MTX MUDHSB-B is for you.

Specially designed as a weather-resistant device for the outdoors, these speakers provide optimum protection from the elements.

Therefore, you can keep enjoying excellent sound quality without worrying about Mother Nature.

The system is very easy to install as well with its universal mounting clamps and wires.

The outstanding sound quality is a result of two factors: it has plenty of power and there are six speakers incorporated in one unit.

The audio performance is further enhanced by an internal power amplifier. You can easily listen to your music at 70 mph going down the interstate.

The system has a 3.5 mm auxiliary input to connect to your devices and music players, while the aux output can connect an external amp or additional sound bar to the speakers.

Hence, you can increase the sound coverage by integrating with an external woofer.

You can also directly stream music from your smartphone or tablet via an integrated Bluetooth receiver.

The speakers have some negatives too. Many customers complain that the remote can’t power off the system, which can be a problem on a ride.

Another issue relates to the wire harness, which is too thick to install in a small space.

Pros
  • The sound is loud and clear with powerful 6 speakers
  • The installation is straightforward and easy
  • Weather-resistant
  • Sound coverage can be increased
Cons
  • The wire harness is quite thick and needs a lot of room to install
  • The remote functionality is not good at powering off the system
Conclusion

This is an easy-to-use and all-in-one speaker with exceptional audio quality.

9. Polk Audio DB522 – High-End Features with an Affordable Price Tag

Polk Audio DB522Are you in search of a motorcycle speaker that offers stellar performance on a budget? If yes, the Polk Audio DB522 is the perfect choice for you.

The sound quality is amazing with nice highs and superb bass. Even at max volume, there is no distraction and the highs and mids are nice and crisp.

The DB522 especially excels with the mids and treble. It removes all distortions and unwanted noise.

Therefore, its audio quality is rich, clean, and balanced. Despite being inexpensive, these speakers can compete with some of the priciest options.

They are weather resistant as well and are marine certified with an IP65 rating, denoting that the speakers are water- and dust-resistant.

Moreover, they have been tested to be resistant to fog, moisture, salt, and UV radiation.

The polypropylene cone with waterproof inner and outer surrounds will give you a nice experience in the rain.

Additionally, they make the speakers a highly durable product.

The installation is smooth, quick, and easy, and you can even do it yourself.

The simple drop-in installation, which makes the process a breeze even for beginners, is not only for motorcycles.

They can be conveniently mounted on cars, boats, and ATVs as well. To fit it precisely, there is zero tweeter protrusion and a low mounting depth.

The only gripe with the Polk Audio DB522 is that the bass could have been better, but for the price provided, we wouldn’t worry too much about this.

Pros
  • The speakers are easy to install, even for beginners
  • They can be fit on cars and motorcycles alike
  • They are resistant to water and dirt
  • The sound is crisp and loud with excellent treble and minds
Cons
  • The bass could be better
Conclusion

The DB522 offers plenty of value on a budget with durability.

10. Kicker Pair 40PS692 6×9 – Best Replacement Speakers

Kicker-Pair-40PS692-6x9Kicker’s 40PS692 makes for great speakers for your vehicle.

If you are planning to replace your worn-out speakers, you will find good quality in this product.

These 6×9” 180-watt speakers will provide you with a clear, loud, and distortion-free sound like never before.

These speakers are amazingly powerful, and the music is loud enough to overcome the roar of the road.

The speakers have a sleek and stylish design with a nice finish. Their high-efficiency coaxials are specially designed for Powersports applications.

They are made of weather-resistant material that protects the body and internal parts from the negative effects of the elements.

Hence, these speakers will last a long time. Customers mention their durability as one of the features they admire about them.

The speakers are quite lightweight, weighing just 12 ounces per speaker.

Thus, they can maintain a very low center of gravity for your bike, keeping your vehicle balanced.

The extreme vibrations, which a bike confronts while traveling on a bumpy road, will not affect the performance of these speakers thanks to the bridge-mounted tweeters.

These 2-ohm speakers are perfectly suited to be installed on motorcycle bag lids as well as 4×4 vehicles.

They utilize heavy-duty ceramic magnets to produce ultra-clear sound at very high speeds.

However, you might have some problems while installing the speakers as they will need to be slightly modified.

Pros
  • The capability of these speakers to handle high powers is amazing
  • Low weight
  • The speakers are weatherproof
  • The price is affordable
Cons
  • To set them up, a bit of modification is required
Conclusion

These are very good replacement speakers with many useful features at a reasonable price.

Buying Guide – Best Motorcycle Speakers 2021

The fact is that finding a motorcycle speaker that meets the requirements of an enthusiast biker can be challenging. Therefore, we have made the effort to pour through innumerable products, expert advices and customer reviews to shortlist our ten best picks. Our rigorous testing examined all pertinent features of nearly 100 models, emphasizing on sound quality, durability and wattage.

Before starting the product reviews, we deem it important to present the factors which every customer must consider before buying a motorcycle camera. Let’s have a look at these aspects:

Type of Speaker

This is the fundamental thing to decide before even starting your search for a motorcycle speaker. There are many types of motorcycle speakers, but you must select the one that suits your requirements and preferences. Speakers usually differ in the way they can be mounted. You can mount a speaker on the handlebar or helmet.

Helmet motorcycle speakers come in two varieties: free-standing and the one which can be attached to the helmet.

You can wear free-standing speakers like headsets. An advantage of a freestanding headset is that it can be attached to almost any helmet.

On the other hand, the attached models are built into the helmet and do not need to be worn separately, though they can’t be removed.

Another type of speaker for your motorcycle is a handlebar speaker: As the name suggests, it can be mounted on your bike’s handlebar.

It is the most popular because it provides an enhanced experience. Many of them even come with an amp.

Handlebar speakers are easy to mount. You just need to check whether the product dimensions will match your motorcycle make and model.

Furthermore, you need to check whether the speaker ships with accessories that will make mounting easy.

Most handlebar speakers can be mounted on an area measuring between 0.75” and 1.25”. They should be mounted such that they do not get in the way of your dashboard and do not become a hurdle for other controls.

Build Quality

Every motorcyclist who wants a fun ride with an incredible music listening experience will definitely want a speaker which is sturdy enough to withstand long-term use and does not break down anytime soon.

Therefore, you need to ensure that the speakers are not made of weak material like PVC and go for models that are made of aluminum or steel, covered with chrome plating or tough thermoplastic.

Wise customers also prefer ABS poly-carbonate for its strong construction, ensuring that the speakers can withstand the constant vibrations of the motorcycle and the rough weather conditions.

Many people prefer PVC simply because they are concerned about weight. In case you opt for a PVC speaker, select one that has been painted over or coated with a durable material or else there is a very high chance that it will degrade in the sun.

At the end of the day, the selection of material will mean making a trade off between durability and weight.

While selecting a motorcycle speaker, you should also check the material’s weather resistance.

You can find models which are made with material that is resistant to the sun, fog, salt, rust and moisture. Such speakers are safe from wear and tear and will remain with you for a long time.

Water resistance should be your priority here. The motor structure of speakers has ceramic magnets that are bonded to ferrous metal plates, and it is vital that these plates remain protected from water.

You should also check your speakers for the ASTM B117 rating. This is a certification that verifies that the speakers will not corrode on exposure to a spray of salt fog. Having this rating ensures great durability and reliability.

Sound Quality

This is how you judge the real performance of a motorcycle speaker. You should never compromise on stereo quality since that is what makes or breaks the product.

You will dislike a model which does not produce an optimum volume level where you hear the roar of engine and wind more than the lyrics of your favorite song.

To ensure a clear sound without any distortion, you need to check the speaker’s power and the quality of amplifiers.

Volume to a large extent depends on the speaker’s wattage. As a rule of thumb, the higher the wattage, the louder the volume. If you only ride inside your city, a lower wattage will suffice.

However, for biking on highways, you will require higher wattage to overcome the noise of the wind and other vehicles.

The bass is yet another factor which is considered important, especially if you love to hear music with deep bass from your speakers.

Since the bass response differs from speaker to speaker, we recommend you do some research regarding this aspect.

It is advisable to have a first-hand experience of the speaker you wish to buy to check if it’s suitable for your specific taste.

After all, people who love jazz will prefer a different speaker than those who like rap because of the variation in both forms.

I will advise you to run a “test drive” before purchasing a speaker. Customer feedback and expert opinions should also be looked up to know all about the audio quality.

Waterproof

As mentioned before, water resistance is an important feature to have.

You never know when the rain will spoil the fun while you are enjoying a great motorcycle ride and listening to your favorite singer’s latest album.

A waterproof speaker will let you continue the fun without any problem. There is a difference between weather resistance and waterproof.

A weather-resistant speaker can endure light rain and can also work well in damp weather, but if you have to ride for hours in heavy rain, it will fail to cooperate and show its limit.

However, waterproof speakers will not fail you.

Although a bit pricey, a waterproof speaker saves money in the long run as you will not have to spend on a new speaker if your previous (non-waterproof) one fails pre-maturely and succumbs to heavy rain.

Some waterproof models are marine-grade speakers, which means they can keep functioning even if they are submerged in deep water.

Connectivity

Every tech-savvy user wants their motorcycle speakers to be compatible with their other electronic devices.

Bluetooth compatibility is, therefore, critical for most customers. With Bluetooth functionality incorporated into your speakers, you can connect wirelessly with most devices.

Since you can get access to your MP3, iPod or smartphone to listen to your playlist, the Bluetooth technology helps bikers start up programs like Pandora and Spotify.

Models with newer Bluetooth versions like 4.0, 4.1 and 4.2 are pricier than the previous ones like 2.0+EDR.

They, however, also feature a higher range and longer playtime because of higher stability and low power consumption.

At the end of the day, it’s all about your preferences and the compromises you are willing to make because you have to live within your budget.

Other connectivity options are also available like USB, auxiliary or SD card port. SD cards make it possible for you to download your music and listen to them whenever you want, while the USB and auxiliary ports allow you to hook up your phone or MP3 to the speaker.

Since connectivity is so critical for music lovers, you must make a detail inquiry about the options available. You need to make sure that the speaker you choose offers the options you use the most.

Wattage

The average wattage of a motorcycle speaker is 50 watts. We recommend 100-watt speakers for a low cc bike with an average speed of 50 miles/hour.

For speeds of 50 to 70 miles/hour, speakers with at least a wattage of 150 watts will be quite suitable.

Speakers with more than 200 watts is recommended for highways. There are also some products that come with an incredibly high wattage of 600 watts, which are great if you want to listen to loud music, regardless of your environment.

Warranty

A warranty is a great help in case something breaks in your speakers or a replacement is required because the unit does not function properly.

You should always check what warranties are available, what they specifically cover and when they will expire.

Battery Life

While buying a motorcycle speaker, one must always select a unit with a long battery life so that it can accompany you on long rides. Wireless devices tend to consume battery very quickly, so you need to be careful about that.

Speaker Size

The speaker size is yet another important consideration. The overall size and thickness must be taken into account.

Select a model that is not disproportionate to the size of your motorcycle or else it will ruin your ride instead of adding to it.

This is because an oversized speaker can create problems while you are riding due to its unnecessary weight.

The diameter and depth of the speakers must be checked thoroughly as they also have a direct impact on the sound quality and frequency range.

Compatibility

Before buying any speaker, you need to make sure it is compatible with your bike. Otherwise, it will only be a waste of money.

Hence, it is always better to research the dimensions of the speaker, its mounting option and its compatibility with your bike before you actually make an order.

Finish and Design

The speaker you select must have a nice finish with a color that suits your motorcycle, especially if aesthetics matter to you.

It will add value to your bike’s appearance. There are many metal designs with a chrome finish that give a stylish look to the motorcycle.

If it does not appear eye-catching, you might not feel good spending lots of bucks on it.

Price

The models vary in price, but every customer has a budget. There are many pricy options available in the market, but they do not always offer high quality.

Expensive does not guarantee quality, so do not fall in the trap of spending more to try to get better products.

There is no need to break the bank. With diligent research, you can always find an affordable item (even from big names) with a fine build and great features.

Don’t be carried away by high-end speakers either. In many cases, people find that such models do not offer their desired features.

Hence, it is important to match a product to your requirements instead of the other way around.

Additional Features

Today’s motorcycle speakers are offering a host of useful additional functionalities, which will enhance your experience of listening to music.

A docking station and thumb controls are just a few such extras.

The docking station allows you to charge your devices while on the go, while thumb controls offer you an undisturbed driving experience without any distractions while you are listening to music.

There are some models which even come with a built-in wind noise cancellation.

This feature is great for experiencing noise-free audio on a windy day or when you are travelling on highways on high speeds.

Most modern speakers also come with a built-in noise filter for ground loops and engine noise interference that dilute the sound.

If default noise filtration is absent, you can buy in-line noise suppressors that immensely reduce engine noise interference to provide you a clear sound.

Wrap-Up

To get the best motorcycle speakers, you need to buy one that is easy to install, offers excellent sound quality, is waterproof/weather-resistant for durability and suits your budget.

With the reviews and buying guide, we hope you have gathered the necessary knowledge to select a speaker that best suit your needs.

If we were to recommend one out of all these, though, we would go for the GoldenHawk Waterproof Bluetooth Speaker because it offers great value for money.

You will get high-end features like excellent audio quality, great build and construction, waterproof and weather-resistant capabilities, and overall quality performance.